The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent & Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study is the largest randomized clinical trial to examine whether cognitive training enhanced both cognitive abilities and everyday functioning in older adults. Recent findings on short term outcomes provide strong support for the benefits of cognitive training. This study will assess the long-term impact and sustainability of the ACTIVE interventions on critical real life outcomes and related costs in advanced old age.

This study has three main aims:

Aim 1: To estimate the long-run effects of the ACTIVE trial on costs, utilization, and health (frailty, comorbidities, and dementia)

Aim 2: To estimate the effects of the ACTIVE trial on financial outcomes including credit scores.

Aim 3: To estimate the effects of the ACTIVE trial on driving ability as measured through driving records.