Introductory Chapter

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Introductory Chapter – Traditional Values in India’s Business


भारतीय व्यवसाय में पारंपरिक मूल्य

Traditional Values in India’s Business 

व्यवसाय में पारंपरिक चिंतन


शुभ लाभ

सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः 

व्यक्तिगत लाभ               समाज का लाभ                सब लोगों का लाभ 

सब प्राणियों का लाभ                        पर्यावरण का लाभ


धर्म                   अर्थ                     काम                मोक्ष

 पहला पुरुषार्थ धर्म शेष तीनों अर्थ काम और मोक्ष का आधार है ।  

कबीर का दोहा

  साँई इतना दीजिए जामें कुटुंब समाय ।
  मैं भी भूखा ना रहूँ साधु न भूखा जाय॥

उपयोगी शब्दार्थ

( is a link for an onine H-E and E-H dictionary for additional help)

व्यवसाय m


चिंतन m


लाभ m


समाज   m

प्राणी m

पर्यावरण m

पुरुषार्थ m

धर्म m

अर्थ m

काम m

मोक्ष m

आधार m

साईं (religious)

जामें  (dialectal)

कुटुंब m



साधु m



deep level thinking







human beings’ goal of life



sensual enjoyment

spiritual liberation


स्वामी, lord

जिसमें, in which


to accommodate


holy person

Linguistic and Cultural Notes

1. Business dealings are as old as human societies. Paired with the onset of business dealings was business ethics, which helped ensure fairness in business. In India, direct and indirect references to trade go back to before the advent of Christian era. There is a reference to the Vaisya caste (traders) in the Rigveda and there is evidence of coins for trading in the Harappan civilization. British macroeconomic historian Angus Maddison states  in his book The World Economy: Historical Statistics that India was the richest country in the world and was the world’s largest economy until the 17th century.

2. Traditionally, businessmen in Hindu society belonged to the Vaishya class. Vaishyas are part of the varnaashram system consisting of four classes – brahmanas (priestly class), kshatriyas (warriors), vaishyas (farmers and businessmen), and shudras (service providers). All four were governed by ethics defined by seers and social engineers. Vaishyas were responsible for generation of wealth and sharing of the wealth in their society. However, occupations are no longer distributed this way in modern India.

3. There are extensive Western influences in every walk of life in modern India. As a consequence, there is a cross-current between Western and traditional ways of doing business. In some circles, traditional ideals diluted whereas in others they are discussed, planned, and implemented aggressively.

Language Development

The two following vocabulary categories are designed for you to enlarge and strengthen your vocabulary.  Extensive vocabulary knowledge sharpens all three modes of communication, With the help of dictionaries, the internet and other resources to which you have access, explore the meanings and contextual uses of as many words as you can in order to understand their many connotations.  

Semantically Related Words

Here are words with similar meanings but not often with the same connotation.









Words with more than one meaning depending on the context:

अर्थ money, meaning, for (in compound words like धर्मार्थ)

Structurally Related Words (Derivatives)

व्यक्ति, व्यक्तिगत, वैयक्तिक, व्यक्तित्व

लाभ, लाभांश, लाभदायक,लाभप्रद, लाभकारी

अर्थ, आर्थिक, अर्थशास्त्र, अर्थशास्त्री

समाज, सामाजिक

धर्म, अधर्म, धार्मिक

Comprehension Questions

1. What is the key to collective happiness?

a. individual growth

b. collective growth

c. universal growth

d. all of above

2. Which of the following is fundamental to the remaining three?

a. moksha

b. kaama

c. artha

d. dharma

Supplementary Materials – Traditional Values


1. स्वस्तिक –   विकीपीडिया से


3. खाता बही अब भी कंप्यूटर को दिखा रही ठेंगा

4. क्यों पूजे जाते हैं दिवाली पर लक्ष्मी और गणेश एक साथ ?

5. धनतेरस पर बरसेगी महालक्ष्मी की कृपा

6. Book Review: The Difficulty of Being Good by Gurcharan Das

by MANSHU on FEBRUARY 15, 2010


1. shubhlabh with kundan Rangoli,swastik with kundan rangoli

2. Meaning and Benefits of Shubh Laabh &utm_campaign=ST 23 OCT?track=188&uid=938881&date=20141023

Discussion Ideas – Traditional Values

1. India is a land of many immigrants who have settled there over the centuries. Two prominent communities are the Parsis (Zoroastrians) from Iran, and Muslims from the Middle East. They brought with them their business ethics. Explore their ethics from a historical point of view and review how these have been adopted by Indian business.

2. On the Internet and through personal interviews explore the development of  indigenous ideas for starting and developing a business.

3. As the world becomes more materialistic, discuss the realistic place of traditional business values in today’s India.

4. Review the book ‘The Difficulty of Being Good” by Gurcharan Das and comment on your views about the concept of dharma and its relevance in today’s business world.

5. Create a roadmap of a business world in which greed is minimal and human good is in abundance.

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