Urinary System Text 2

 

课文(二):肾脏的功能与保健

肾脏是人体的重要器官,形状像蚕豆,位于腰部脊柱两侧。成年人的肾脏和自己的拳头差不多大。

肾脏的主要功能是清除体内的废物多余的水分。人体新陈代谢会产生废物,如尿素、尿酸等,肾脏将这些废物通过尿液排出体外。当人体内水分过多或过少时,由肾脏对尿量进行调节,保持体内水分平衡。除此之外,肾脏还有刺激骨髓造血、维持骨骼强壮、调节血压等作用。

肾脏每天能过滤200升血液,像一个工厂一样,不停地清洗我们的血液。一旦肾脏不能正常工作,各种废物就会在体内积聚,变成“毒素”,危害人体健康。

据统计,中国40岁以上慢性肾脏病的发病率达到9%~10.6%,主要是由于饮食不合理、滥用药物、细菌感染等引起的。

肾脏负责排出废物和毒素。吃得太咸、太甜、太油,蛋白质吃得太多,都会增加代谢产物,加重肾脏的负担。滥用药物会增加体内毒素、损害肾脏,特别是有些药物对肾脏有明显的毒副作用。有的人因为工作忙碌,没有时间上厕所,经常憋尿。憋尿容易造成细菌繁殖,引发尿道炎等疾病。如果尿液流回肾脏,其中的有毒物质会造成肾脏感染,引发肾炎肾结石等疾病。

 

Chinese Part of Speech Pinyin English
蚕豆 (n) cándòu broad bean
脊柱 (n) jízhù spinal column
清除 (v) qīngchú to remove
废物 (v) fèiwù waste
多余 (n) duōyú redundant
尿素 (n) niàosù urea
过滤 (n) guòlǜ to filter
毒素 (v) dúsù toxin
毒副作用 (n) dú fù zuòyòng toxic and side effect
憋尿 (v) biē niào to hold one’s urine
尿道炎 (n) niàodàoyán urethritis
肾炎 (n) shènyán nephritis
肾结石 (n) shènjiéshí kidney stone

 

 

Text (2): kidney function and health care

 

Kidney is an important organ of the human body, shaped like a broad bean, is located in the waist on both sides of the spine. Adults have kidneys about the size of their fists.

The main function of the kidney is to remove waste and excess water in the body. The metabolism of the human body produces wastes, such as urea and uric acid, which are excreted by the kidneys through the urine. When there is too much or too little water in the human body, the kidneys regulate the urine volume to maintain the water balance in the body. In addition, the kidney can stimulate bone marrow hematopoiesis, maintain bone strength, and regulate blood pressure.

The kidneys filter 200 liters of blood a day, and like a factory, they keep washing our blood. Once the kidneys can’t work normally, various wastes will accumulate in the body and become “toxins”, endangering human health.

According to statistics, the incidence of CKD among people over 40 years old in China has reached 9%–10.6%, mainly due to improper diet, drug abuse and bacterial infection.

Kidneys are responsible for excreting wastes and toxins. Eat too salty, too sweet, too oily, too much protein, will increase the metabolites and the burden of the kidney. Drug abuse will increase toxins in the body and damage the kidney. In particular, some drugs have obvious toxic and side effects on the kidney. Some people have no time to go to the toilet because of their busy work and often hold their urine. It is easy for bacteria to reproduce and cause diseases such as urethritis. If the urine flows back to the kidney, the toxic substances in it can cause a kidney infection, causing diseases such as nephritis and kidney stone.