Any LCS student is expected to conduct interdisciplinary research while at Penn. This is accomplished via collaboration with students, postdocs and/or faculty outside their own department. Such collaborations will most likely arise through connections established in the Common Ground Seminar. LCS students generally will have at least one member of their Ph.D. committee be a faculty member whose primary appointment is in a different department than the student. Alternatively, LCS students are encouraged to have two Ph.D. advisors (i.e., co-advisors), one from their own department and the other from a different department.