Visual Organs Text 2

 

课文(二):人为什么会流泪

每个人的眼睛里都有制造眼泪的““泪腺”。眨眼的时候,眼泪就均匀地抹在眼球上。眼泪能湿润和清洁眼球、冲洗和稀释进入眼睛的灰尘等异物,还能杀灭细菌、预防结膜炎等眼部疾病。

正常情况下,人是不会“流泪”的。除了少量蒸发,大部分泪水经过泪道排入鼻腔。眼泪中含有溶菌酶,能保护鼻粘膜不被细菌感染。只有大量分泌或者泪道堵塞的时候,泪水才会从眼睛里流出来。

流泪可以分为情感性流泪和反射性流泪。情感性流泪是情感因素引起的,反射性流泪则是疾病、灰尘、化学物质等因素刺激引起的,比如切洋葱时流的泪。

研究发现,情感性泪水中含有较多的蛋白质,其中有一种是类似止痛剂的化学物质。学者认为,强烈的情绪刺激会使人体产生过多的中枢递质,需要通过流泪排出体外。过多的中枢递质积聚在体内,对人体有害,使溃疡和肠炎的发病几率增加。据统计,男性流泪的频率大概是女性的1/5,所以男性患溃疡病比女性多。

伤心或激动的时候流泪,不但可以发泄情感,也有助于身体健康。女性比男性爱流泪,这可能是女性平均寿命比较长的原因之一。

 

Chinese Part of Speech Pinyin English
泪腺 (n) lèixiàn lacrimal gland
均匀 (adj) jūnyún even, well-distributed
(v) to apply
稀释 (v) xīshì to dilute
异物 (n) yìwù foreign body
结膜炎 (n) jiémóyán conjunctivitis
蒸发 (v) zhēngfā to evaporate
泪道 (n) lèidào lacrimal passage
溶菌酶 (n) róngjūnméi lysozyme
堵塞 (v) dǔsè to block
洋葱 (n) yángcōng onion
止痛剂 (n) zhǐtòngjì analgesic
中枢递质 (n) zhōngshūdìzhì central transmitter
频率 (n) pínlǜ frequency
发泄 (v) fāxiè to vent
寿命 (n) shòumìng lifespan

 

Text (2): Why do people shed tears?

Everyone has a tear gland in his eye. Blinking of an eye spreads tears evenly on the eyeball. Tears can moisten and clean the eyeball, wash and dilute foreign bodies such as dust entering the eye, kill bacteria and prevent eye diseases such as conjunctivitis.

Under normal circumstances, people don’t shed tears. With the exception of a small amount of evaporation, most of the tears drained through the lacrimal passage into the nasal cavity. Tears contain lysozyme and can protect the nasal mucosa from bacterial infection. Tears will only come out of your eyes when there is a lot of secretions or when your lacrimal passages are blocked.

Tears can be divided into emotional tears and reflex lacrimation. Emotional tears are caused by emotional factors. Reflex lacrimation is caused by disease, dust, chemicals and other factors such as cutting onions.

The study found that emotional tears contained more protein, and one of the chemicals was similar to an analgesic. Scholars believe that strong emotional stimulation will make the human body produce too many central neurotransmitters, which need to be excreted through tears. Excessive central neurotransmitters can accumulate in the body and are harmful to the human body, making the incidence of ulcers and enteritis increase. According to statistics, men shed tears about 1/5 of the frequency of women, so men suffer from ulcers more than women.

Tears when you are sad or excited can not only give vent to your feelings, but also help your health. Women cry more than men, which may be one of the reasons why women live longer on average.