16 European Renaissance


Ambrose Duboise, Allegory of Painting and Sculpture (Fontainebleau), ca 1600


 Humanists and education

Broadening of “learned community”


religious reform and faculties of theology

–religious curriculum reforms, humanist reforms

what changed at universities?

arts course: use of logic; textbooks, training of professors

study of “new” ancient languages added

Greek: at Cracow c. 1500; Alcalà c 1513; Leipzig 1515; Paris 1517 (unofficially earlier);  Wittenberg 1518

Hebrew: Leuven 1517 (Trilingual College ); Heidelberg 1519; Basel 1529; Paris 1530.

religion and theology

Biblical study. Protestant regions and “sola scriptura”

confessional boundaries and locations for study

urban growth and education

vernaculars: modern languages vs Latin

role of ruler: how and why


  • legal studies and political thought
  • presentation of self: image
  • prestige
  • humanists aid in creating royal image
  • example:Valois kings of France, mainly Francis I


Francis I ruled 1515-47

1530:  Collège Royale (later College de France) at University of Paris

regius professors of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew.

Guillaume Budé  (1467-1540)


Portrait, ca 1526, by Jean Clouet ( d. 1540/41)

Commentaries on the Greek Language, 1529

Annotations on the Pandects (1508—on Justinian Code)

Publishers:  Stephanus or Estienne (Robert, Henri)


chateau at Fontainebleau. Rebuilding began 1527




Emulation of Roman, Greek past and regional European pasts


France and Trojans


Welsh (John Dee) and Celtic legends


Garcilaso ‘el Inca’ (1539-1616), Peruvian humanist

House of Garcilaso in Cuzco, Peru

Image result for casa garcilaso cusco



Rise of print industry

high risks, high profile

Robert Estienne and Estienne Press

Robert 1503-1559

Bible edition   (1527-28)

1531: Latin dictionary

connections with King

Royal privilege

King’s printer for Hebrew, Latin works 1539,  Greek   1540

official typeface: 1541  Claude Garamond

Stephanus numbers and Plato

Thesaurus linguae sanctae. Paris: Stephanus, 1548