MDT and Drivers

Drivers are a big part of getting Windows to work properly. Anyone who has ever had to troubleshoot a piece of hardware on Windows knows this. When generalizing an installation of Windows for capture with sysprep, all but the most basic drivers are removed. This makes the captured image applicable to many different types of hardware. During a task sequence, MDT runs a plug and play check, for hardware at a couple of different points to determine what drivers, if any, are needed. When a matching driver is found, it is injected into the image before it is applied to the computer’s hard drive. To do this, MDT has a folder/section in the deployment share that is dedicated to organizing and storing drivers. It is called “Out-of-Box-Drivers” (OOBD).

The basic INF files are what MDT needs for driver injection. Many drivers are distributed as packages, which come in the form of an executable. This is not what we need. If an executable is the only way a driver is available, it must be imported as an application into MDT, and installed via task sequence. Fortunately, OEMs like Dell, Lenovo, HP, and even Microsoft make bulk downloads of model-specific drivers available from their sites. Dell hardware drivers come in the form of a CAB file, which can be opened with the expand command, or with a compression/decompression utility like 7-zip.

Bulk-driver Download Sites for Dell, Lenovo, HP, and Microsoft (Surface)

I create a folder structure on the MDT server similar to¬†“Drivers\Windows ##\Vendor\Model.” For example: D:\Drivers\Windows 7\Dell\OptiPlex 990

I do not delineate between x86 and x64 versions of drivers in my folder path because nearly all of my OS deployments are 64-bit. Dell combines x86 and x64 drivers in the same download. Many Dell drivers can be used on both platforms. Lenovo drivers will try to extract to their own, specified path, but that can be changed at runtime. Complete, downloaded driver packs can be between 300MB and 1,000MB in size, except for WinPE driver packs which are very small.

Using the expand command, I’ll extract the drivers to my folder structure.

expand C:\Users\jasonrw\Downloads\990-OptiPlex-ABCDE.cab -f:* “D:\Drivers\Windows 7\Dell\OptiPlex 990”

The command prompt window will scroll really quickly and end with the prompt returning. Now, we can import them into MDT. MDT is able to handle drivers in different manners. The basic default option is to throw all drivers into the same folder at the root OOBD directory. With that, a deployment task will search the entire OOBD store for the right drivers. This increases the chance of the wrong driver being selected. WMI is great, but it is not perfect. Another option is to break down the OOBD store by manufacturer/vendor or by operating system version. Creating folders for Windows 7 and Windows 10, respectively can help minimize the chance of a wrong driver being installed. I take it one step further, actually a couple of steps further. I still use MDT’s WMI hardware-querying capabilities, but I tell it exactly where to look.

I create a specific folder structure under OOBD that matches a specific WMI query I pass on to the deployment task. For example, Windows 7: Out-of-box-drivers\Windows 7\Dell Inc.\OptiPlex 990

OOBD Folder Hierarchy

The bottom two folder tiers each correspond to variable in a WMI query, Make and Model. To find the make or manufacturer of an OEM PC, run the following command from a command prompt.

wmic computersystem get manufacturer

The returns for Dell and Lenovo are “Dell Inc.” and “Lenovo

To get the model, run the same command as above, but replace “manufacturer” with “model” Top that off with a folder for OS version and platform, and you have something to use. In the task sequence, a task variable can be inserted into the PreInstall phase, before the inject drivers step to tell the task sequence exactly where to look. The variable is “DriverGroup001”, and the value is “Windows 7 x64\%Make%\%Model%” This will allow a task sequence to correctly use a WMI query to find the drivers for the exact make and model being imaged.

Task Sequence Variable

The Inject Drivers step has its own settings that needs to be configured. For our purpose, the selection profile has to be set to “Nothing” with all drivers from the selection profile being used.

Selection Profile

Selection profiles are the ultimate step toward driver control. They are a pre-defined selection of drivers that may encompass and individual model, or manufacturer. MDT ships with a few pre-defined selection profiles, but more can be created to suit any need. Given the exact control this approach provides, there is one detraction, it limits task versatility. Since a selection profile tells a task sequence exactly which drivers to use, MDT doesn’t query for them. The default setting for Inject Drivers is to query the entire OOBD store, but when “Nothing” is set, they querying is off. If it is desired that a task sequence only serve one or two makes of computers, this might be a good approach. I support about a dozen different models from two manufacturers, and I’d like my task sequences to be applicable to all.

I do use a selection profile to organize the drivers I use for my MDT Windows PE ISO/WIM files. Dell and Lenovo make drivers just for Windows PE available as a download too. I use the same approach as above to download, extract, and import the Windows PE drivers into MDT. Then, I create a selection profile for the Windows PE drivers and use that for my ISO/WIM file drivers.

Selection Profiles

To import drivers into OOBD, make your folders as desired, right-click the folder for the computer model, and choose “Import drivers.” A wizard will open, walking you through the process of importing the drivers from where they were extracted. It is real easy.

Import Drivers Wizard

After the driver import, the deployment share must be updated. By default, MDT uses the all network and system drivers it has in the OOBD store for the Windows PE ISO/WIM file. This can be changed, as I described above, with a custom selection profile, but it is not mandatory. Still, note, that each time drivers are added and removed, the deployment share should be updated for those new drivers to be used. Some drivers are clearly depicted whether or not they are x86 or x64. In reality, many single drivers can be used on both platforms, but the descriptor files do not always indicate that to MDT. Thus, MDT will import the driver and override the specified platform. This is noted after all of the drivers have been imported for that operation.

screen-shot-2016-09-25-at-15-06-54

I, personally, write down the name of each driver with a warning, and disable them after the wizard ends. Disabling/deleting a driver is easy, just right-click it in the MDT workbench and choose the appropriate option. Drivers must be disabled from their property sheet. Disabling a driver is a safe approach before it is determined that deletion is necessary. Only ever delete a driver from the MDT workbench. DO NOT go into the driver store via the file system and delete it that way.

Disable Driver

Again, when disabling or deleting a driver, you must update the deployment share to take it out of Windows PE.

Finding, downloading, extracting, and importing drivers into MDT is a big part of MDT configuration, which takes a great deal of time. If it is done with forethought and planning, it can minimize the driver problems a deployment share might have, and need only be done once. I note the name and date of the driver files that I download and import into MDT. Then, I can periodically check for updates from the vendor’s web-sites. The older a model is with the manufacturer, the less-frequent they tend to update the drivers packs for that model. If the manufacturer does not make a driver pack available for your model, it is possible, though very tedious, to download each driver, and extract them individually. I try to avoid doing that.

Thanks!

 

 

UEFI and a Dell OptiPlex 990

Hello,

I do a great deal of work with virtual machines and perform all of my operating system development on virtual platforms. My desktop PC came with a 500GB hard drive. Using a virtualization program and creating a couple of production sized virtual machines will take up a great deal of that space very quickly.

A larger hard drive is one of the easiest upgrades one can make to a computer. I ordered a 3TB drive for my Dell OptiPlex 990 and had hoped to just plug and chug, but it didn’t work out that way. What I had found out that the default traditional method of BIOS hardware management on the PC only allowed it to see partitions or drives no larger than 2TB. BIOS-based computers use hard drives that are partitioned in the Master Boot Record or “MBR” format. To use the new crop of large drives with more than 2TB of space, one needs to format the drive as a GUID Partition Table or GPT device. There, the largest of drives can be partitioned and formatted as one single volume, which is what I was after.

I should have just done my homework and just ordered a 2TB drive. Under BIOS/MBR, Windows setup would only see 2TB, leaving around 768GB unavailable. GPT disks cannot use the BIOS system. They rely on a newer system called the Universal Extensible Firmware Interface, or “UEFI.” The OptiPlex 990 has the ability to use a BIOS-based system or UEFI, but not both. Each are mutually exclusive to the OptiPlex 990. Newer computers have the ability to use UEFI with support for legacy BIOS system (UEFI-CSM), but not the 990.

I initially tried to get the 3TB HDD to be recognized by booting to a Windows PE boot drive and use DISKPART to partition and format the HDD as a GPT disk. Still, Windows setup would not use the drive. Windows 10 setup would indicate that setup could not use any available partition as they were in GPT format. The problem wasn’t the drive, which was set up correctly, it was the install media. I use an 8GB USB key drive to install Windows from an ISO file. A great piece of freeware called “Rufus” is what I use to make the boot-able USB key from the Windows ISO file. Rufus defaults to creating a Windows PE volume, which is what Windows setup is, that supports both MBR and UEFI with backwards compatibility. I though that would work, and it should have, but the OptiPlex 990 was BIOS or UEFI, not both. One option to create the USB boot key was pure UEFI.

While I was sorting this out, I noticed that when I switched the 990’s BIOS to UEFI mode, there were no more boot-able drives like the HDD, CD/DVD, or USB listed. This was accurate because none had been made available. The 3TB drive was GPT but did not contain any boot-able volumes at that point. I had yet to make a pure-UEFI USB key, and there was no disc in the DVD-RW drive, so no there were no UEFI boot options. Any and all BIOS/MBR, and UEFI/GPT boot devices are shown when the PC POSTs. As soon as I partitioned and formatted the 3TB drive as GPT, and inserted the all-UEFI USB boot drive, the OptiPlex 990 saw the USB drive as a UEFI boot device and Windows setup accepted the partitioned 3TB drive for install. After that, Windows 10 installed and I had ALL of the available space, which came in around 2.78TB.

To do…

Partition/format the drive as a GPT device.

Create a boot-able Windows PE USB drive and boot the target computer to it, with the larger-than-2TB-HDD installed.

Run DISKPART from the Windows PE prompt and enter the following commands to partition and format the drive as a GPT disk, minus the REM statements.

select disk 0
clean
convert gpt
rem == 1. Windows RE tools partition ===============
create partition primary size=300
format quick fs=ntfs label="Windows RE tools"
assign letter="T"
set id="de94bba4-06d1-4d40-a16a-bfd50179d6ac"
gpt attributes=0x8000000000000001
rem == 2. System partition =========================
create partition efi size=100
rem    ** NOTE: For Advanced Format 4Kn drives,
rem               change this value to size = 260 ** 
format quick fs=fat32 label="System"
assign letter="S"
rem == 3. Microsoft Reserved (MSR) partition =======
create partition msr size=128
rem == 4. Windows partition ========================
rem ==    a. Create the Windows partition ==========
create partition primary 
rem ==    b. Create space for the recovery image ===
shrink minimum=15000
rem       ** NOTE: Update this size to match the size
rem                of the recovery image           **
rem ==    c. Prepare the Windows partition ========= 
format quick fs=ntfs label="Windows"
assign letter="W"
rem === 5. Recovery image partition ================
create partition primary
format quick fs=ntfs label="Recovery image"
assign letter="R"
set id="de94bba4-06d1-4d40-a16a-bfd50179d6ac"
gpt attributes=0x8000000000000001
list volume
exit

Script from Microsoft

Create the all-UEFI Windows install USB drive…

Go into the computer’s BIOS by pressing F2 during the boot sequence (Dell), before Windows even starts to load. NOTE: BIOS/MBR disks will not boot in a UEFI/GPT configuration. Any change from BIOS/MBR to UEFI/GPT WILL REQUIRE a Windows reinstall. No way around it, so Back up your data.

On a separate computer, insert the USB key, and open Rufus as an admin.

The USB key should be listed in the top dialog box, make sure you’re formatting the right drive if there are multiple USB drives currently inserted into the PC. From the bottom part, near where it says “Create boot-able disk using [ ISO Image]”, click the small button with the disc and drive icon and choose your Windows install ISO.

Next, select the drop-down menu option under “Partition scheme and target system type”, choose “GPT partition scheme for UEFI.” If the source ISO file changes, the partition scheme changes also, so watch that.

RufusCreate the drive and insert it into the computer that has the large HDD and boot to it by pressing F12 (Dell/Lenovo). If the USB key was created properly as a UEFI device, it will show up as a UEFI boot option under the BIOS boot options which will still be the CD/DVD drive and the HDD (possibly).

Install Windows and relish in the large space now available!