13 Renaissance and Reform across Europe

“The Reformation”

Our goals: identify big issues, big changes

  • “First wave” led by Protestants
  • Centers: HRE, Swiss towns; Luther, Zwingli, others
  • ends with Peace of Augsburg, 1556
  • Second wave: Jean Calvin
  • Goal: reform of “THE CHURCH”–theology, practice, ecclesiastical
  • Early attempt: Hadrian VI (1522-23)

Main groups as they developed despite these goals:

  • Catholics
  • Lutherans: followers of Martin Luther
  • Calvinists: followers of John Calvin
  • Other city-reform groups (Protestants)
  • Radical reformers: ex. Mennonites

anti-papal pamphlets:

Rhegius,  Wie man die falschen Propheten erkennen mag. 1539



Catholics and Rome

early reform efforts: slowed by Italian wars

Sack of Rome, 1527

Paul III (1534-49) Alessandro Farnese  Palazzo Farnese (begun 1517)

1540 Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Church of the Gesù: Ignatius Loyola

Rome: Gesu (Artstor)

Council called 1542 Trent, met 1545-62 sporadically

  • first sessions doctrine
  • later:  control over standards, reform of abuses
  • progress against Protestants

Paul IV (1555-59)

Pius IV (1559-65)

Political advantages to Catholicism: papal treaties; legitimacy


Religious wars: France through 1590s

succession disputes, some parties and claimants Calvinist

Religious Wars II: Thirty Years War (1618-48)

End of religion-based warfare on continent in this era


regional control over Church, headed by King

Immedate cause: divorce

doctrine: both Lutheran, Calvinist influences

Mary and return to Catholicism; Elizabeth restored Protestantism

Religious stability: 1688


re-organization of administration

new prayer books etc implemented

Plantin-Moretus Museum

Control of knowledge: Index of Forbidden Books (1559+)

Continued rebuilding of infrastructure (bridges, streets, etc)

Continued centralization of religous orders

Dealing with religious dissent and difference: Ghetto

Relations with Protestant visitors; with “cultural tourism”