14: Rome and Italy


Rome during the Reformation

  • Continuing to rebuild city
  • End wars of Italy maintaining Roman independence
  • reform

Reform and the Council of Trent

  • Paul III (Alessandro Farnese)                        1534-49
  • Julius III (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte) 1550-55
  • Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi) 1555 (9 April-1 May)
  • Paul IV (Gian Pietro Carafa)                          1555-59
  • Pius IV (Giovanni Angelo Medici)                 1559-65

File:Palazzo Farnese Fassade.jpg

Paul III (1534-49) Alessandro Farnese

Palazzo Farnese begun 1517 (current: French Embassy)

  •  reform  commission

Council: at Trent   1545–49, 1551–52 and 1562–63

1564 decrees promulgated

Picture

Decrees, 1670 edition

Confessionalization

Church of the Gesù, Rome (consecrated 1584)

St. Peter’s: Dome 1590 Facade 1612

Photo. The façade is wide and has a row of huge columns rising from the basement to support the cornice. The ribbed, ovoid dome is surmounted by a lantern topped with ball and cross. Its drum is framed by two very much smaller domes.

Thirty Years’ War and Rome

  • Enormous scale
  • Succession and Holy Roman Empire: a Calvinist in position to become Emperor
  • Began over religion and HRE: a Calvinist came to be in position to become Emperor
  • New powers in Europe: Sweden (Lutheran)
  • Political interests greater than confessional identity: France

1648  Treaty of Westphalia

Relevance to Rome

  • re-established diplomatic relations, recognized papal states across Europe
  • permanent losses of land, taxes in Protestant realms
  • Fabio Chigi a papal diplomat: then elected as Alexander VII 1655-67
  • Experience with Protestant leaders
  • Mutual recognition of Protestant and Catholic states
  • New powers: decline of Holy Roman Empire: France, Low Countries, Sweden

 

Rome after Thirty Years’ War

Building continues

heart of Catholicism in the world

Public works projects: streets bridges, urban planning (Porta del Popolo)

Churches:

St Peter’s. Dome 1590; Facade 1612

Walking Tours of Rome | Walking tour, St. peter's basilica, St peters basilica

Piazza, Bernini, 1667

Some project completed in  18th c: ex: Trevi Fountain

The history of the Trevi Fountain in Rome, Italy | Black Tomato

 

Pilgrimage Churches: special attention

Foreign donors: Spanish Steps (18th c)

Cultural   politics

Home for noted Catholic exiles

18th c ex: Charles Edward Stuart

Home for prominent political converts

Queen Christina of Sweden( 1626-1689)   (ruled 1644-54)

 

The Festivities in Honor of Queen Christina of Sweden in the Cortyard of Palazzo Barberini, 28 February 1656

Rome as a center for art and antiquity

French Academy in Rome 1666

Bernini , Charles Le Brun, Jean-Baptiste Colbert

 

French Revolution: 1789     

1790: “Civil Constitution of the Clergy”

Reorganized Catholic Church in France

Church lands confiscated, funding from state

Diocese corresponds to département

Citizens elected priests and bishops

Rift among citizenry

Rome and Church align with anti-revolutionary forces (Pope: Pius VI)

 

Italian Campaigns of French Revolutionary Wars 1792-1802

Napoleonic Years (Emperor 1804-14, 1815)

Spread Revolution; then the new Empire

1798 Napoleonic armies occupy Rome; republic declared

Art works, church records, more taken to France

anonymous: Napoleon and Apollo Belvedere, taken to Paris 1797-1815

Suppression of many religious institutions

 

1809 Rome and   Papal States annexed into  French Empire

1814 Congress of Vienna

Pope returns to Rome

Canova supervises return of art works

Pius IX  (1846-78)

1848 and revolutions

1848 constitution for Rome

1849 unsuccessful declaration of republic

 

Catholic Church and pope clearly aligned with conservatism

 

  Risorgimento:

Kingdom of Italy 1861; House of Savoy; Florence as capital

Rome excluded with help from France, Austria

1862, 1867 Garibaldi attempts to capture Rome (guarded by French)

1870 Pius IX blesses troops before final loss of Rome to Risorgimento

  • 1870 Italian troops enter Rome

Rome made capital after plebiscite

Pius IX refuses to recognize state: “prisoner of the Vatican”

Catholics expected not to recognize Italian state

1929 Lateran Treaty and Concordat: Pius XI and Mussolini

Papal sovereignty within Vatican City

 

 

Population: 500,000   before World War  over 1,000,000 by 1930

 

Archaeology as field

Example: Rodolfo Lanciani (1849-1929)  some of his maps

 

1920s-30s: Fascist urban planning

1932 demolition for the construction of Via dei Fori Imperiali

World War II:

1943 Allied invasion of Sicily

1943    July 24-25   Fascist Grand Council  met in Rome

Recall king, dismiss Mussolini. Marshal Pietro Badoglio  as Prime Minister

1944 June Allied forces in Rome

May 1946 abdication of King Victor Emmanuel III;

   2 June referendum for republic

son  Umberto II departs

Constitution; 1929 Lateran Treaty recognized

 

Major palazzi assigned to government institutions

Palazzo Chigi Presidente del Consiglio (Prime Minister) since 1961